ACUÑA Carlos Alberto
congresos y reuniones científicas
DIGGING DEEPER INTO SOIL SCIENCE TO AID FORAGE GERMPLASM COLLECTION ACTIVITIES
CHERYL L. MACKOWIAK; ANN R. BLOUNT; CARLOS A. ACUÑA
Simposio; 5th International Symposium of Forage Breeding; 2015
Universidad de Buenos Aires
International and domestic germplasm collecting has been the basis for many of our most common forage species and commercialized cultivars. Often, a new forage release is the direct result of an earlier ?ecotype? plant introduction. An ecotype is a genetically distinct geographic plant within a species, or population of plants within a species that is adapted to a specific environment. Including expertise in soil science (via academic training and collaborating with soil professionals) helps the forage breeder identify the most likely locations where an ecotype is best adapted to specific environmental conditions. Vegetation is dependent upon soil characteristics and these characteristics are a result of interactive soil forming factors: parent material, climate, organisms, topography, and time. Tools, including the Global Positioning System (GPS), geospatial mapping, and the International Soil Classification System, have greatly improved the prospects of locating forage species and ecotypes with desirable characteristics and their documentation. A soil scientist who understands plant-soil relationships can assist the forage breeder on collection planning, as well as testing in new environments/locations. For example, the UF Forage Breeding Program has found that ecotypes collected under one set of soil conditions may perform differently under local soil conditions. More specifically, forage Arachis glabrata Benth. ecotypes brought to the U.S., performed differently in our Florida red soils (Acrisols) than in our flatwood soils (Podzols). Under conditions of limited funding support, inclusion of soil expertise will increase the likelihood of a successful collection, through additional interpretive information of the environment from where the plant originated and the potential of a good fit in the new environment.