capítulos de libros
Energy and Territory. Toward Sustainable Integrated Scenarios.
Handbook of Sustainable Energy
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Lugar: New York; Año: 2011; p. 443 - 465
Territorial Planning, known as a valuable management tool, is essential for building sustainable scenarios. It is a methodology which focuses on the territory as a social construct meaning a dynamic space where different types of "capital" converge (natural, human, social, institutional). This allows the analysis of different scales, taking into account the global visions and identities, the relationships of legitimacy, the game of power and interests of various stakeholders, the demands for participation, the ethical considerations and factors of change. It is a tool which provides a comprehensive, systemic and foresight perspective in seeking ways to balance environmental and social equity. From this perspective, energy issues can be seen as integrated into the territory on both demands and problems, but also opportunities and potential for change. The analysis of energy issues with this methodology offers the following advantages: an assessment of renewable resources, visualization of the energy demand in all its complexity, incorporating perspectives and views of local stakeholders, identification of priorities, possibility of planning short and long term proposals and actions. How can you integrate the concept of energy into the land use planning approach? The answer is found by reviewing the three main stages of this methodology: defining objectives, evaluating course of action and implementation. First, it is necessary to define the "sustainable" from the conceptual and pragmatic point of view, taking into account the aspirations, ideals and realities of a given territory. This allows the identification of the desired scenario, itself a synthesis of what is needed, what is expected and what needs to be achieved. Thus, different sectors that are part of the territory stand for different interests as well as for various energy demands. However, it is imperative to identify the commonalities and core issues from which agreements must be built: the need to improve life quality, reduce negative environmental impacts, improving efficiency in production processes, etc. Secondly, there are several options to evaluate in order to meet priorities. In this regard, Multi criteria Evaluation Methodologies become a real option since they develop a unique variable system that combines qualitative and quantitative data, integrates multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary approaches as well as spatial models based on GIS (Geographic Information Systems). Thirdly, top priority and optimal actions have been identified and they need to be implemented. Thus, maps of capacity and allocation of uses define preferred locations for activities. In relation to these preferences and uses, energy analysis can define applications of renewable energy and energy efficiency policies, with better prospects for its implementation. Finally, decisions must be translated into direct action tools for the construction of the new scenario. Strategic planning is viewed, in this context, as the main interactive tool for change.