CONTRATADOS
GIRARDI Elena Silvia
artículos
Título:
Nimodipine restores the altered hippocampal phenytoin
Autor/es:
HOCHT, GONZALEZ,AUZMENDI, OPEZZO,.BRAMUGLIA,TAIRA, GIRARDI E
Revista:
NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS
Editorial:
Elsevier Ireland
Referencias:
Año: 2007 vol. 413 p. 168 - 168
ISSN:
0304-3940
Resumen:
The present work was undertaken to examine the central pharmacokinetics of phenytoin (PHT) in an experimental model of epilepsy, induced by administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP), and possible participation of P-glycoprotein in this model of epilepsy. Repeated seizures were induced in male Wistar rats by injection of 3-MP (45 mg kg−1, i.p.) during 10 days. Control rats (C) were injected with saline solution. In order to monitor extracellular PHT levels, either a shunt microdialysis probe or a concentric probe was inserted into carotid artery or hippocampus, respectively. All animals were administered with PHT (30 mg kg−1, i.v.) 30 min after intraperitoneal administration of vehicle (V) or nimodipine (NIMO, 2mg kg−1). No differences were found in PHT plasma levels comparing all experimental groups. In pre-treated rats with V, hippocampal PHT concentrations were lower in MP (maximal concentration, Cmax: 2.7±0.3gml−1, p < 0.05 versus C rats) than in C animals (Cmax: 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model PHT concentrations were lower in MP (maximal concentration, Cmax: 2.7±0.3gml−1, p < 0.05 versus C rats) than in C animals (Cmax: 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model PHT concentrations were lower in MP (maximal concentration, Cmax: 2.7±0.3gml−1, p < 0.05 versus C rats) than in C animals (Cmax: 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model (NIMO, 2mg kg−1). No differences were found in PHT plasma levels comparing all experimental groups. In pre-treated rats with V, hippocampal PHT concentrations were lower in MP (maximal concentration, Cmax: 2.7±0.3gml−1, p < 0.05 versus C rats) than in C animals (Cmax: 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model 5.3±0.9gml−1). Control rats pre-treated with NIMO showed similar results (Cmax: 4.5±0.8gml−1) than those pre-treated with V. NIMO pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model pre-treatment of MP rats showed higher PHT concentrations (Cmax: 6.8±1.0gml−1, p < 0.05) when compared with V pre-treated MP group. Our results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model results indicate that central pharmacokinetics of PHT is altered in MP epileptic rats. The effect of NIMO on hippocampal concentrations of PHT suggests that P-glycoprotein has a role in reduced central bioavailability of PHT in our epileptic refractory model PHT concentrations
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