Stimulation of the proline cycle and anthraquinone accumulation in Rubia tinctorum cell suspension cultures in the presence of glutamate and two proline analogs.
PERASSOLO, M.; QUEVEDO, C.V.; GIULIETTI, A.M.; RODRÍGUEZ TALOU, J.
PLANT CELL TISSUE AND ORGAN CULTURE
Año: 2011 vol. 106 p. 153 - 159
Anthraquinone (AQs) biosynthesis in Rubia tinctorum L. involves different metabolic routes. Chorismic acid, the end-product of shikimate pathway, becomes the branch point between primary and secondary metabolism. It has been proposed that the proline cycle could be coupled with the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), since the NADP+ generated by proline reduction from glutamate could act as a cofactor of the first enzymes of the PPP. This pathway generates erithrose-4-phosphate, the substrate of the shikimate pathway. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of the addition of glutamate and two proline analogs, azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (A2C), and thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C) on the PPP, the proline cycle and anthraquinone production in R. tinctorum cell suspension cultures. The addition of 5 mM of glutamate enhanced both anthraquinone (up to 30%) and total phenolic content (12%), which correlated well with proline accumulation. Only the addition of 200 µM of T4C resulted in an increase in anthraquinone production, which was accompanied by a rise in the proline content. Neither the addition of glutamate nor proline analogs resulted in the induction of PPP, so this route was not a limitant factor as a carbon donor to the shikimate pathway.