MIRANDE Juan Marcos
Weighted parsimony phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes)
MIRANDE, JUAN MARCOS
WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Año: 2009 vol. 25 p. 574 - 613
The family Characidae, including more than 1000 species, lacks a phylogenetic diagnosis, with many of its genera currently considered as incertae sedis. The aims of the present study are to propose a phylogenetic diagnosis and to assess higher-level relationships of and within Characidae. In this regard, 360 morphological characters are studied for 160 species of Characidae and related families. Phylogenetic analyses under implied weighting and self-weighted optimization are presented, exploring a broad range of parameters. The analysis under self-weighted optimization is innovative for this size of matrices. Familial status of Serrasalmidae is supported, and Acestrorhynchidae and Cynodontidae are included in a monophyletic Characidae. Engraulisoma taeniatum is transferred from Characidae to Gasteropelecidae. Thus constituted, the monophyly of Characidae is supported by seven synapomorphies. A new subfamily, Heterocharacinae, is proposed, and the subfamilies Aphyocharacinae, Aphyoditeinae, Characinae, Gymnocharacinae, and Stevardiinae are redefined. The Glandulocaudinae are included in Stevardiinae together with remaining members of clade A (sensu Malabarba and Weitzman, 2003. Comun. Mus. Ciênc. Tecnol. PUCRS, Sér. Zool. 16, 67151.) and the genera Aulixidens and Nantis. Most incertae sedis genera are assigned, at least tentatively, to a phylogenetically diagnosed clade.