Evolution of the strikingly diverse submandibular muscles in Anura
ELIAS-COSTA, AGUSTIN J.; ARAUJO-VIEIRA, K.; FAIVOVICH, J.
WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Lugar: Londres; Año: 2021 p. 1 - 1
The most ventral muscles of the head (the mm. submentalis, intermandibularis, and interhyoideus) provide support to the gularregion and lift the buccal floor during ventilation and feeding. These muscles show limited variation in most gnathostomes, butin Anura they exhibit a surprising diversity. The few studies that have explored this character system highlighted its potential asa source of phylogenetic information. In this paper we explored the diversity of this character system studying specimens of 567anuran species and reviewing published data to cover a total of 1321 species, belonging to 53 of the 54 currently recognized anuranfamilies, as well as caudates and caecilians. We defined 27 discrete characters including the number of muscle bellies, supplementarylayers, hypertrophy and diversity of elastic fibres, and pigmentation, among others, and optimized them on acomprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We recognized 223 unambiguously optimized synapomorphies for numerous clades ondifferent scales, including three for Anura and many for suprafamiliar clades with poor phenotypic support. Finally, we discussedthe evolution of this highly diverse character system, including homology, development, and its functional role in vocalizationand feeding. Interestingly, the striking levels of variation in some structures contrast with the amount of phylogeneticinertia, allowing us to recognize several general patterns. Supplementary elements of the m. intermandibularis evolved first asbroad layers occuring in more than half of extant anuran species and then concentrated forming discreet bellies in several clades.The anterior portion of the gular region is not sexually dimorphic, and is likely related to ventilation and tongue protraction.Conversely, the diversity of the m. interhyoideus is strongly linked to vocal sacs, which are present only in adult males, suggestingthe presence of two independent modules.