Novel morphological structures in frogs: vocal sac diversity and evolution in Microhylidae (Amphibia: Anura)
TARGINO, M.; ELIAS-COSTA, AGUSTIN J.; TABOADA, C.; FAIVOVICH, J.
ZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY
WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Lugar: Londres; Año: 2019
Vocal sacs are present in most species of frogs and are the product of the interaction of three elements: the gularskin, the superficial submandibular musculature and an internal mucosa derived from the buccal floor. In thispaper, we surveyed the structural diversity in the vocal sac of microhylids and related families in 109 exemplarspecies, including 11 of the 13 currently recognized subfamilies. We defined five characters related to anatomicaland histological properties of the m. interhyoideus, as well as the relationship of this muscle and the vocal sacinternal mucosa. We describe a vocal sac configuration characterized by highly abundant elastic fibres in associationwith muscle fibres, a very unusual structure in animal tissues. We discuss the evolution of novel structures ina phylogenetic context and identify new synapomorphies for Microhylidae and internal clades. Furthermore, wecomment on the functional implications that these features have in vocal sac inflation.