Phylogenetic relationships of toads of the Rhinella granulosa group (Anura: Bufonidae): a molecular perspective with comments on hybridization and introgression
PEREYRA, M.O.; BALDO, D.; BLOTTO, B. L.; IGLESIAS, P.P.; THOME, M.T.C.; HADDAD, C. F. B.; BARRIO-AMORÓS, C.L.; IBAÑEZ, R.; FAIVOVICH, J.
WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Lugar: Londres; Año: 2016 vol. 32 p. 35 - 35
The Rhinella granulosa group consists of 13 species of toads distributed throughout open areas of South America and Panama.In this paper we perform a phylogenetic analysis considering all but one species of the group, employing five nuclear andfour mitochondrial genes, for up to 7910 bp per specimen. Separate phylogenetic analyses under direct optimization (DO) ofnuclear and mitochondrial sequences recovered the R. granulosa group as monophyletic and revealed topological incongruencethat can be explained mainly by multiple events of hybridization and introgression, both mitochondrial and nuclear. The DOcombined analysis, after the exclusion of putatively introgressed or heterozygous genomes, resulted in a phylogenetic hypothesisfor the R. granulosa group in which most of the species are recovered as monophyletic, but with interspecific relationshipspoorly supported. The optimization of morphological (adult and larval), chromosomal, and behavioural characters resulted in12 putative phenotypic synapomorphies for this species group and some other synapomorphies for internal clades. Our resultsindicate the need for additional population genetic studies on R. dorbignyi and R. fernandezae to corroborate the taxonomic statusof both taxa. Finally, we discuss biological and genetic characteristics of Bufonidae, as possible explanations for the commonoccurrence of hybridization and introgression observed in some lineages of this family.