INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN BIODIVERSIDAD Y BIOTECNOLOGIA
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
Molecular dynamics and structure function analysis show that substrate binding and specificity are major forces in the functional diversification of Eqolisins
REVUELTA, MARÍA VICTORIA; TEN HAVE, ARJEN; CASTRONUOVO, PRISCILA AILÍN LANZA; STOCCHI, NICOLÁS; VERA, D. MARIANO A.
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Lugar: Londres; Año: 2018 vol. 19
Molecular Dynamics and Structure Function Analysis show that SubstrateBinding and Specificity are major Forces in the functional Diversification of Eqolisins.Authors: Nicolas Stocchi a,* , María Victoria Revuelta a,*,1 , Priscila Ailín Lanza Castronuovo b,* , D. Mariano A. Vera b and Arjen ten Have a,#a Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas (IIB-CONICET-UNMdP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, CC 1245, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina.b QUIAMM-INBIOTEC-CONICET, Department of Chemistry ? Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina...* These authors made equal contributions...AbstractBackground: Eqolisins are rare acid proteases found in archaea, bacteria and fungi. Certain fungi secrete acids as part of their lifestyle and interestingly these also have many eqolisin paralogs, up to nine paralogs have been recorded. This suggests a process of functional redundancy and diversification has occurred, which was the subject of the research we performed and describe here.Results: We identified eqolisin homologs by means of iterative HMMER analysis of the NR database. The identified sequences were scrutinized for which new hallmarks were identified by molecular dynamics simulations of mutants in highly conserved positions, using the structure of an eqolisin that was crystallized in the presence of a transition state inhibitor. Four conserved glycines were shown to be important for functionality. A substitution of W67F is shown to be accompanied by the L105W substitution. Molecular dynamics shows that the W67 binds to the substrate via a π-π stacking and a salt bridge, the latter being stronger in a virtual W67F/L105W double mutant of the resolved structure of Scytalido-carboxyl peptidase-B (PDB ID: 2IFW). Additional problematic mutations are discussed. Upon sequence scrutiny we obtained a set of 233 sequences that was used to reconstruct a Bayesian phylogenetic tree. We identified 14 putative specificity determining positions (SDPs) of which four are explained by mere structural explanations and nine seem to correspond to functional diversification related with substrate binding and specificity. A first sub-network of SDPs is related to substrate specificity whereas the second sub-network seems to affect the dynamics of three loops that are involved in substrate binding.Conclusion: The eqolisins form a small superfamily of acid proteases with nevertheless many paralogs in acidic fungi. Functional redundancy has resulted in diversification related to substrate specificity and substrate binding.