INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIONES BIOLOGICAS Y TECNOLOGICAS
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
capítulos de libros
LORENA I. SPINSANTI; LUIS A. DIAZ; MARTA S. CONTIGIANI
Arthropod Borne Diseases
Springer Publishing Group
Año: 2017; p. 73 - 88
The Flavivirus genus currently includes 53 viral species, most of them transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks bites and others with not known vector and specific insect flavivirus. Flaviviruses comprise important arthropod-transmitted human pathogens, including Yellow Fever (YFV), Dengue (DENV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), West Nile (WNV) and Tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV) viruses. DEN viruses are globally expanded and are the most important mosquito-borne disease after malaria. Also with a worldwide distribution, YF still cause mortality events around the world. Beside human vaccination campaign enzootic foci remain active triggering emerging events for this pathology. West Nile virus, endemic in Old World countries was introduced to American continent by 1999. It became an important human and veterinary pathogen due to its virulence in human beings, horses and wild birds (especially in corvids). Antigenicallyclosely related, St. Louis encephalitis virus co-circulates with WNV in American continent. Since 2002 it reemerged in the south cone of South America as a human encephalitis etiological agent. Tick Borne encephalitis virus still causing human encephalitis outbreaks in Eastern Europe and Russia. Zika virus with endemic activity in Africa and Polynesia it became an emerging flavivirus with outbreaks reported in South America (Brazil, Easter Island). In this chapter authors will focus in general aspects of flaviviruses and their diseases, their spatial and temporal distributions patterns, ecology, epidemiology, pathogeny and phylodinamics. Moreover, factors affecting their epidemiology and emergence are emphasized.Due to the great importance and amount of knowledge on dengue and yellow fever, these diseases deserved separated chapters (7 and 8).