ALBARRACIN Virginia Helena
capítulos de libros
The Diversity of Microbial Extremophiles
RASUK M.C.; FERRER M.G.; MORENO J.R.; FARIAS M.E.; ALBARRACÍN V. H.
Molecular Diversity of Environmental Prokaryotes
Año: 2016; p. 87 - 126
Extreme environments are defined as those habitats in which human life is not possible. Thus, from a human point of view, those forms of life thriving in those conditions will be called as ?extremophiles.? Environments that harbor this kind of life are widespread around the globe, including hot springs, hydrothermal vents, deep ocean, deserts, high-altitude environments, brines and soda lakes, nuclear reactors, ice sheets, and toxic wastes.Including representatives of all three domains of life, that is, Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryote, extremophiles are denoted by a descriptive term, usually a word with Greek or Latin roots followed by the combining form phile Greek term for ?loving.? Their names are given depending on the physicochemical factor they withstand, such as thermophiles, psychrophiles (organisms growing best at high or low temperatures), acidophiles, alkaliphiles (organisms optimally adapted to acidic or basic pH values), barophiles (organisms that grow best under pressure), xerophiles (resistant to desiccation), or halophiles (organisms that require high salt concentrations for growth). In addition, a much larger diversity of organisms can tolerate extreme conditions and grow, but not necessarily optimally in extreme habitats; these organisms are defined as extremotrophs or extreme tolerant.The aim of this work is to offer a short, but comprehensive report on the biology and biodiversityof extremophilic microbes thriving in particular environments around the globe together with adescription on their importance for basic research and common biotechnological applications.