URTREGER Alejandro Jorge
PKCd inhibition impairs mammary cancer proliferative capacity but selects cancer stem cells, involving autophagy.
DAMIAN E. BERARDI; CAROLINA FLUMIAN; CRISTINA E. RODRIGUEZ; MARIA I. DIAZ BESSONE; STÉFANO M. CIRIGLIANO; ELISA D. BAL DE KIER JOFFE; GABRIEL FISZMAN; LAURA B. TODARO; ALEJANDRO J. URTREGER
JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY
WILEY-LISS, DIV JOHN WILEY & SONS INC
Lugar: New York; Año: 2016 vol. 117 p. 730 - 740
ULTIMA AUTORIA COMPARTIDA. Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate diverse cellular functions including cell death, proliferation and survival. Recent studies have reported that PKCd, are involved in apoptosis or autophagy induction. In the present study we focused on how PKCd regulates proliferation and cancer stem cell (CSC) properties of the hormone-independent mammary cancer cell line LM38-LP, using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We found that pharmacological inhibition of PKCd, by Rottlerin treatment, impairs in vitro LM38-LP proliferation through cell cycle arrest, inducing the formation of cytoplasmic-vacuoles. Using immunofluorescence we confirmed that Rottlerin treatment induced the apparition of LC3 dots in cell cytoplasm, and increased autophagy flux. On the other side, the same treatment increased CSC growth rate and self-renewal. Furthermore, Rottlerin pre-treatment induced in CSC the development of a grape-like morphology when they are growing in 3D cultures (Matrigel), usually associated with a malignant phenotype, as well as an increase in the number of experimental lung metastasis when these cells were inoculated in vivo. The PKCd knockdown, by RNA interference, induced autophagy and increased CSC number, indicating that these effects are indeed exerted through a PKCd dependent pathway. Finally, the increase in the number of mammospheres could be reversed by a 3MA treatment, suggesting that autophagy mechanism is necessary for the increased of CSC self-renewal induced by PKCd inhibition. Here we demonstrated that PKCd activity exerts a dual role through the autophagy mechanism, decreasing proliferative capacity of mammary tumor cells but also regulating tumor stem cell self-renewal.