congresos y reuniones científicas
DETERMINATION OF THE RESPIRATORY MECHANICS IN NASAL CAVITY OF MODERN HUMANS FROM DIFFERENT CLIMATIC REGIONS THROUGH NUMERICAL METHODS USING CFD
GONZÁLEZ, MARINA; PAZ, RR; CALVO, N; VAZQUEZ DURAND, M; VELAN, O; GONZÁLEZ JOSÉ, ROLANDO
Congreso; 1° international PANACM 2015 conjuntamente con XI Argentine MECOM 2015; 2015
The most important physiological function of the nasal cavity is the warming and humidification of the air before it reaches the lungs. Human populations evolved in different climatic condition so it is important the study of respiratory dynamics to determine morphological differences in population in such environmental conditions. This work studies the variations in the nasal cavity morphology and its relationship with climatic factors, like the atmospheric water vapor pressure and the air temperature where modern humans developed. The hypothesis that in cold and dry climates the nasal cavities show features that tend to improve air contact with the mucosa for an effective air conditioning is analyzed. Inner nasal cavities of patients from East Europe are reconstructed and geometrically modeled using Computed Tomography (CT) images in order to evaluate functional changes in respiratory mechanisms from the point of view of the fluid dynamics. The description of the nasal flow physics is based on a multi-phase model for mass, momentum and energy transport of an incompressible viscous fluid mixture (air and water vapor). The evolution of the mixture temperature and humidity inside the nasal cavity is correlated to both the nose morphology and the climatic variables. Results indicate that variations in the shape of the nasal cavity are related to a gradual change from cold-dry to warm-humid climate with separate effects on the temperature and vapor pressure. Furthermore, it is verified that a significant portion of the thermal conditioning is performed at the level of the vestibular region of the nose.