PODEROSO Juan Jose
Mitochondrial nitric oxide in the signaling of cell integrated responses
CARRERAS MC; PODEROSO JJ
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY
The American Physiological Society
Año: 2007 vol. 292 p. 1569 - 1569
Mitochondria are the specialized organelles for energy metabolism, but, as a typical example of system biology, they also activate a multiplicity of pathways that modulate cell proliferation and mitochondrial biogenesis or oppositely promote cell arrest and programmed cell death by a limited number of oxidative or nitrosative reactions. These reactions are influenced by matrix nitric oxide (NO) steady-state concentration, either from local production or by gas diffusion to mitochondria from the canonical sources. Likewise, in a range of _30?200 nM, NO turns mitochondrial O2 utilization down by binding to cytochrome oxidase and elicits a burst of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide that diffuses outside mitochondria. Depending on NO levels and antioxidant defenses, more or less H2O2 accumulates in cytosol and nucleus, and the resulting redox grading contributes to dual activation of proliferating and proapoptotic cascades, like ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK. Moreover, these sequential activating pathways participate in rat liver and brain development and in thyroid modulation of mitochondrial metabolism and contribute to hypothyroid phenotype through complex I nitration. On the contrary, lack of NO disrupts pathways like S-nitrosylation or H2O2 production and likewise is a gateway to disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with superoxide dismutase 1 mutations or to cancer proliferation.