INSTITUTO DE BIOLOGIA CELULAR Y NEUROCIENCIA "PROFESOR EDUARDO DE ROBERTIS"
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
Function of Neuropeptides at Central Nervous System
GEORGINA RODRÍGUEZ DE LORES ARNAIZ-EDITORA
Lugar: Trivandrum, Kerala, India ; Año: 2009 p. 300
Function of Neuropeptides at Central Nervous System 2009 Editor Georgina Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Instituto de Biología Celular y Neurociencias Prof. E. De Robertis, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Buenos Aires Paraguay 2155, 1121-Buenos Aires Argentina Function of Neuropeptides at Central Nervous System 2009 Published by Research Signpost 2009; Rights Reserved Research Signpost T.C. 37/661(2), Fort P.O., Trivandrum-695 023, Kerala, India Editor Georgina Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Managing Editor S.G. Pandalai Publication Manager A. Gayathri Research Signpost and the Editor assume no responsibility for the opinions and statements advanced by contributors ISBN: 978-81-308-0313-5 Preface There exists a large number of chemical messengers that are responsible for interneuronal communication. The term classical neurotransmitter refers to acetylcholine, biogenic amines and amino acid neurotransmitters. In neurons, together with the classical neurotransmitters, there exist a wide spectrum of active peptides. Neurons can contain and use both a classical transmitter and a peptide transmitter. In many cases, two, three or even more transmitters are colocalized in a single neuron. The presence of multiple transmitters in a neuron may indicate that different transmitters are employed by a neuron to signal different functional states to its target cell. The book Function of Neuropeptides at Central Nervous System contains review articles of selected peptides or peptide families known to exert particular actions at Central Nervous System. Chapter 1 refers to neurotensin, a neuropeptide which acts as a neuromodulator, a neurotransmitter as well as an endocrine modulator. General knowledge about this peptide was briefly reviewed. The attention was focussed on the relationships between neurotensinergic system and other neurotransmitter systems, including the dopaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, opioid and aminoacidergic systems. Evidence showing neurotensin effect on the regulation of ionic equilibrium through neuronal membranes were also reviewed. Chapter 2 deals with the involvement of neurohypophysis neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin in cognitive processes. Whereas vasopressin affects long-term memory processes and improves both memory consolidation and retrieval, oxytocin exerts opposite actions, being an amnesic neuropeptide. Both neuropeptides modulate diverse types of memories and exert regional effects on the activity of several brain neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators, including catecholamines, serotonin, acetylcholine, glutamate and glucocorticoids. In Chapter 3 the characteristics of renin angiotensin systems generating angiotensin II at central and peripheral levels are reviewed. They are important for the regulation of homeostatic processes, such as hydromineral balance, body temperature, cardiovascular function and for the control of hormone secretion. The relationship between central and peripheral renin angiotensin systems are highlighted. The members of the renin angiotensin system are biologically active peptides formed in the central nervous system which play different roles in the brain as neurotransmitters, exciting neurons with high specificity, and which also behave as neuroendocrine, paracrine, autocrine and intracrine factors. Chapter 4 refers to angiotensin-(1-7), an important functional end-product of the renin-angiotensin system endogenously formed from angiotensin I or II. At the central level, this peptide acts in sites involved in the control of cardiovascular function, thus contributing to blood pressure regulation. It is suggested that angiotensin-(1-7), acting at peripheral and central sites, plays an important role in cardiovascular and renal function regulation as well as in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Chapter 5 stressed that cardiac and extracardiac natriuretic peptides behave as physiological antagonists of the renin angiotensin system. All actions exerted are coordinated by the brain natriuretic peptides system in order to maintain body fluid homeostasis. Natriuretic peptides are involved in the regulation of catecholaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, GABAergic as well as nitrergic neurotransmission at central nervous system level. Furthermore, these peptides interact with oxytocine and argininevasopressine at central level, participating in memory and learning processes as well as in brain development. Chapter 6 refers to the family of endothelins, originally described as potent vasoconstrictor agents which are likewise involved in the regulation of multiple biological functions. Interactions between endothelins with specific receptors and the activation of diverse signaling pathways which mediate a wide variety of biological effects were reviewed. They include the regulation of cardiovascular function, water and sodium homeostasis, the secretion of different hormones and neurohormones, as well as diverse effects at central nervous system level. Chapter 7 deals with the main aspects of endothelins and natriuretic peptides in the regulation of the gastrointestinal function, particularly the digestive secretions. These peptides, very well known for their participation in the control of blood pressure and renal function likewise behave as neuropeptides. A high density of receptors for natriuretic peptides and endothelins localized along the gastrointestinal tract and digestive glands strongly suggests that these peptides are involved in the regulation of the digestive function, independently of their hemodynamic properties. Furthermore, a high density of their receptors is also localized in the dorsal vagal complex which is the main brain integrative centre that controls the digestive function. It is postulated that these peptides are more than vasoactive peptides. Chapter 8 refers to the superfamily of neurotrophic factors which includes neurotrophin, interleukin 6-related cytokine, glial derived neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor families. Neurotrophines exert their effects on neuronal and glial survival, proliferation and differentiation through steps which involve receptor interaction, signal transduction activation and modulation of gene expression. Besides these slow actions, neurotrophines exert acute effects, behaving as neuromodulators of membrane excitability, synaptic transmission and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. The interest was focussed on acute effects shown by neurotrophins, mainly on neurotransmitter uptake and release, and regulation of synaptic transmission at central nervous system level. Receptors and signal transduction pathways involved in neurotrophin acute effects, as well as the relationships between neurotrophins and physiological and pathophysiological processes were also reviewed. The number of neuropeptides localized in neurons and the diversity of their central effects is notably higher than those mentioned in this book. For a general view on synthesis, storage, release, as well as characteristics of receptors and involvement in disease, the excellent review by Mains and Eipper (2006)* is recommended. The Book Editor is greatly indebted to her colleagues for their excellent interest and dedication in the preparation of the respective review chapters. Dra. Georgina Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz *Mains, R.E., and Eipper, B.A. 2006, Basic Neurochemistry. Molecular, Cellular, and Medical Aspects 7th ed., G.J. Siegel, R.W. Albers, S.T. Brady et al. (Eds.), Elsevier Academic Press, MA, 317. Contents Chapter 1 Neurotensin in central neurotransmission 1 María Graciela López Ordieres and Georgina Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Chapter 2 Oxytocin and vasopressin: Their participation in the neurobiology of learning and memory 31 Baratti Carlos M., Boccia Mariano M and Blake Mariano G. Chapter 3 The renin angiotensin system in the central nervous system 53 Marcelo R. Choi, Susana Cavallero and Belisario E. Fernández Chapter 4 Central effects of Angiotensin-(1-7) 101 Mariela M. Gironacci and Clara Peña Chapter 5 Natriuretic peptides in the central nervous system 119 Susana Cavallero, Marcelo R. Choi, Ana M. Puyó and Belisario E. Fernández Chapter 6 Endothelins: A family of peptides with multiple biological functions 149 Vatta M.S., Bianciotti L.G., Perfume G., Nabhen S.L., Hope S.I. and Riquelme Barrera K. Chapter 7 Natriuretic peptides and endothelins: More than vasoactive peptides Insights into their role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal function 171 Liliana G. Bianciotti, Myrian R. Rodríguez, María S. Ventimiglia María S. Lange and Marcelo S. Vatta Chapter 8 Acute effects of Neurotrophic Factors: Beyond cellular survival, proliferation and differentiation 203 Martín Rodríguez Fermepin