GOMEZ ZAVAGLIA Andrea
Fortification of water kefir with magnetite nanoparticles
GHIBAUDO, F.; GERBINO, E.; HUGO, A.A.; CAMPO DALL' ORTO, V.; GOMEZ-ZAVAGLIA, A.
FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Año: 2021 vol. 149
The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of incorporating Fe3O4 (magnetite, M) NPs into water kefir (wKef) beverages. Magnetite NPs were synthesized and coated with pectins (cM), and incorporated into wKef beverages obtained by fermentation of a muscovado sugar solution with wKef grains. FeSO4, usually employed as fortifier, was used as a control. Four different beverages were analyzed: wKef, wKef-cM, wKef-M, wKef-FeSO4, indicating wKef beverages fortified with cM, M or FeSO4, respectively. Their stability was assessed by determining the viability of total lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, and the composition of saccharides along storage at 4 °C for up to 30 days. The toxicity of M and cM was evaluated in an in vivo model of Artemia salina. The absorption of iron was quantified by determining ferritin values on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and its internalization mechanisms, by employing inhibitors of endocytic pathways and quantifying ferritin. M and cM were non-toxic on Artemia salina up to 500 µg/mL, a toxicity even lower than that of FeSO4, which showed a LD50 of 304.08 µg/mL. After 30 days of storage, no significant decrease on yeasts viability was observed, and bacteria viability was above 6 log CFU/mL for the four beverages. In turn, sucrose decreased to undetectable values, concomitantly to an increase in the concentrations of glucose and fructose. Both wKef-M and wKef-cM led to a significant increase in the ferritin values (up to 2 folds) with regard to the basal state. The internalization of M NPs occurred via clathrins and caveolin pathways, whereas that of cM, by macropinocytosis. Safely incorporating M and cM NPs into wKef beverages appear as an innovative strategy for providing bioavailable iron aiming to ameliorate the nutritional status of populations at risk of iron deficiency (e.g., vegans).