MACNBR   00242
Unidad Ejecutora - UE
Lugar: New York; Año: 2017 p. 1 - 1
The genus Orchestina Simon is distributed worldwide and is characterized by having an enlargedfourth femur with which these species are capable of jumping. The genus is also characterized byhaving a well-sclerotized sperm duct, a near H-shaped arrangement of the eye group, a 4-4-3-3 patternof raised receptors on the tarsal organs of the legs I?IV, respectively, and by lacking spines onall the legs. All these characters, together with molecular evidence, support the monophyly of thegenus, as well as its placement as sister group of Oonopinae. Most American species of Orchestinainhabit the forest foliage and canopy, but in unforested areas they also occur in shrubs and grasses.In this work, we revise the American representatives of Orchestina in a comprehensive context forthe first time. In the past, six species were known from the Americas: five from the United Statesand only one from South America, described from Venezuela. After the study of the principal collectionsof the world and several field trips to several South American countries, we describe 85 newspecies and redescribe all previously known species. Matching sexes was occasionally problematic;while females are very homogeneous in somatic traits, males may have modifications on differentparts of the body, making the matching very difficult. Therefore, in this review 56 of the species aredescribed from only one sex, whereas 20 unmatched species are informally described as morphospecies,pending the discovery of conspecific sexes. Two species, O. pavesiiformis Saaristo and O. dentiferaSimon, originally known from Israel and Sri Lanka, respectively, are here reported as introducedin several countries in the Americas and other continents. O. justini Saaristo described from theSeychelles is here considered a synonym of O. dentifera. One species, O. truncata Wunderlich, previouslyknown as a subfossil spider from Colombian Copal is here tentatively redescribed based onrecent material from Costa Rica, Colombia, and Ecuador; the female is also described for the firsttime. The species list by country is as follows (numbers refer to records, independently of the localityof the type material): United States (9 species: O. utahana Chamberlin and Ivie, O. moaba Chamberlinand Ivie, O. obscura Chamberlin and Ivie, O. saltitans Banks, O. nadleri Chickering, the introducedO. pavesiiformis Saaristo, and three new species, O. quasimodo, O. kamehameha, and O.auburndalensis); Mexico (3 species: O. utahana Chamberlin and Ivie, and two new species, O.nahuatl and O. chaparrita); Guatemala (1 new species: O. guatemala); Costa Rica (3 new species: O.laselva, O. griswoldi, and O. chiriqui; and the previously known O. truncata Wunderlich); Panama (5new species: O. chiriqui, O. labarquei, O. pan, O. campana, and O. galapagos); Jamaica (2 species, theintroduced O. dentifera Simon and O. galapagos); Haiti and Dominican Republic (only the introducedO. dentifera Simon); Colombia (6 new species: O. filandia, O. zingara, O. arboleda, O. cali, O.platnicki, O. pakitza; and O. truncata Wunderlich, plus the morphospecies OMI020 and OMI038);Venezuela (7 species: O. saltabunda; and 6 new, O. venezuela, O. aragua, O. bolivar, O. maracay, O.ranchogrande, and O. neblina); Trinidad and Tobago (1 new species: O. kairi); Guyana (1 morphospecies:OMI026); Ecuador (18 new species: O. galapagos, O. fernandina, O. erwini, O. ecuatoriensis,O. sotoi, O. magna, O. shuar, O. golem, O. waorani, O. tzantza, O. predator, O. goblin, O. yanayacu,O. otonga, O. santodomingo, O. quijos, O. mayo, O. laselva, and O. truncata Wunderlich, plus themorphospecies OMI020, OMI021, OMI022, OMI023, OMI024, OMI025, OMI026, OMI027,OMI029, OMI036, and OMI038); Peru (9 new species: O. cajamarca, O. comaina, O. atocongo, O.mancocapac, O. silvae, O. madrededios, O. pakitza, O. losamigos, O. golem, and the morphospeciesOMI020, OMI023, OMI026, and OMI030); Brazil (25 new species: O. cristinae, O. coari, O. moura,O. valquiria, O. aproeste, O. caxiuana, O. para, O. taruma, O. retiro, O. divisor, O. juruti, O. platnicki,O. iemanja, O. bonaldoi, O. rapaz, O. itapety, O. catarina, O. leon, O. saudade, O. sarava, O. goblin,O. sotoi, O. golem, O. waorani, O. ucumar, the introduced O. pavesiiformis Saaristo, and O. dentiferaSimon, plus the morphospecies OMI021, OMI023, OMI024, OMI025, OMI026, OMI027, OMI029,OMI032, OMI033, OMI034, OMI035, OMI036, OMI037, OMI039, and OMI040); Bolivia (3 newspecies: O. moyuchi, O. grismadoi, and O. ucumar); Chile (12 new species: O. pandeazucar, O. caleta,O. totoralillo, O. pizarroi, O. molles, O. granizo, O. quenies, O. curico, O. cachai, O. nahuelbuta, O.jaiba, and O. osorno); and Argentina (6 new species: O. ucumar, O. andianavarroi, O. luispi, O. cristinae,O. platnicki, O. jaiba, and the introduced O. pavesiiformis Saaristo). Although the internalrelationships of the genus are still not clear, we suggest some groups of species based on morphologicalcharacters and geographic distributions. Species from the western United States share the presenceof a net-shaped pattern of coloration and, in some species, modifications of carapace or firstlegs of males. Females of this group are characterized by the presence of a thin, generally long andtwisted anterior receptaculum and external pockets on the epigastric region. This group inhabits ina geographic region that remained isolated during the late Cretaceous and is still isolated by geographicand climatic conditions. Species groups in South American members were more difficult toestablish, given their wide diversity. However, some species are unique in having internal pockets infemale genitalia and apophyses on the male copulatory bulb. The Chilean species are probably amonophyletic group; they are separated from the rest by the combined presence of external pocketsand ridges on the epigastric region of female, whereas males are very similar in the morphology ofcopulatory bulb, which is very simple, with long embolus and sometimes with additional spineshapedapophysis. This group may have experienced events of isolation during and after the elevationof the Andes range. As in other members of the family the genus is interesting for the presence ofsecondary sexual characters in males whereas females are practically homogenous in somatic characters.However, female genital morphology is variable, which may suggest a coevolution withsomatic characters in males and probably mechanical interactions. Although this work reveals theincredible diversity of this genus, many important geographic regions remain undersampled andrecords for some countries are entirely lacking.